Monday, December 11, 2017
Assalam Alaikum Wa Rahmatullah Wa Barakatahu

MAIN VARIETIES OF HADITHS

MAIN VARIETIES OF HADITHS

    Hadees (hadiths), thus, is a comprehensive word. It stands for the creative teaching and the revolutionary activities of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). The major varieties of Hadees are as follows: -

(1) The narration of all those affectionate words that the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) uttered from time to time;

(2) The collection of specific instructions and advises which he offered for the guidance of mankind;

(3) The statements of all those noble deeds that he performed in the presence of his companions and followers;

(4) Other details of his personal life as witnessed and reported by the members of his noble family, etc.,

FOUNDATION OF WISDOM AND GUIDANCE

    Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was born in 571 AD in Mecca, the renowned city of Saudi Arabia. He died in 632 AD in Medina, another famed town of the same country. Allah Almighty conferred Prophethood on him 13 years before the commencement of the Islamic calendar (A.H.) He was forty then. The period of Prophethood lasted 23 years. It started on 13 before A.H. and ended in 11. AH, the year of his death.

    The last 23 years of his life, i.e. from 13 before A.H. to 11 A.H., are counted as a glorious era in the history of mankind. During these memorable years Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) continued spreading Islam, the religion of peace and progress. He uttered a large number of moving words for the guidance of humanity. He also performed a variety of pious deeds. Those words of advice and those deeds of righteousness stand out as a sweet foundation of practical wisdom and constructive guidance for all mankind. Hadees, the recorded version of his wise words and noble deeds, is a stimulating study for all mankind. A child, eager to forge ahead in life, must familiarize himself with the essence and purpose of Hadees.

MUHAMMAD (PEACE BE UPON HIM) INSPIRES ENTIRE MANKIND

    Whenever Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) uttered a word of guidance his companions hastened to commit the same to memory. Those who knew the art of writing used to put the same in black and white. Then wherever these good-natured people went they talked about those wise sayings for the benefit of others. The Prophet's (peace be upon him) wisdom thus kept on spreading far and wide. It went on reforming humanity's thought and behavior.

    After the death of the Prophet (peace be upon him) his companions and followers continued the sacred mission of people's education and guidance. They carried the torch of wisdom and righteousness to the adjoining lands. Wherever they went they enlightened people on the Islamic way of life. This new way of life has been outlined in the Holy Quran. It was actually practiced by the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him).

    The most remarkable point was reached when the Muslims entered Spain. There they established schools, colleges, universities and libraries. Their cultural pursuits and social activities provided nourishing food for thought to entire Europe. The Islamic way of life began to be understood in the West as well. More and more people started to appreciate the meaning and purpose of Prophet’s (peace be upon him) revolutionary message. It began to bring about a constructive changing all sectors off their life. A time soon came when the Islamic way of life became popular with the people of the East as well as the West. The present day world owes much of its beauty and betterment to the teachings of Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the humanitarian services of his followers.

EARLIEST HADEES COLLECTIONS

    The work of collecting Prophet's sayings and recording the same systematically had started while the Prophet was alive. Some of his companions had prepared Hadees collections of varying sizes. Of these early collections the one prepared by Hazrat Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (may Allah be pleased with him) is very famous. This collection is known as Sadiqah. It contains one thousand sayings of the Prophet (peace be upon him)

    There are other collections besides the one mentioned above which were also prepared during the Prophet's (peace be upon him) lifetime. They were complied by his illustrious companions like Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Anas, Hazrat Abdullah bin Masud, Hazrat Abu Hurairah and Hazrat Saad bin Abbad (may Allah be pleased with them).

DEVELOPMENTS DURING EARLY CALIPHATE

    After the death of Prophet (peace be upon him) Muhammad the great caliphs kept on popularizing his teachings among the people. The four early caliphs, who are specially known for this valuable service to humanity are: (1) Hazrat Abu Bakar Al-Siddique, (2) Hazrat Umar Al-Farooq, (3) Hazrat Uthman Al-Ghani and (4) Hazrat Ali Al-Murraza (may Allah be pleased with them). These eminent statesmen are also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Their period is referred to as the age of Early Caliphate.

    A number of Hadees collections were prepared during the days of the early Caliphs. Of these the one complied by Hazrat Abu Bakar Al-Siddique is very well known. It contains 500 Traditions. Besides, Hazrat Imam Hassan, Hazrat Abu Musa Ashaari and Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them) also complied different Hadees collections at different times.

A HISTORIC SERVICE TO HUMANITY

    With the end of the Early Caliphate, started the era of the Ummayyads. Umar bin Abdul Aziz (may Allah be pleased with him) was the eighth Umayyad caliph. It was during his rule that the task of collecting all the Traditions in one place and publishing them in the shape of a comprehensive book started on a big scale. His rule began in 99 A.H. and ended in 101 A.H. During this period the Muslim empire expanded enormously. It included countries like Spain, Algeria, Morocco, Tunis, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, Bahrain, Jordan, Asia Minor, Iran, Afghanistan and even northwestern parts of India. Hadees literature was in great demand in all these area. Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz felt that there was a danger of the loss of a number of Traditions in case those were not recorded in writing. He, therefore, issued immediate instructions to all of his governors and scholar that all available Traditions be recorded carefully. They were also ordered to send the same to C, which was the federal capital of the Umayyad Empire at that time.

    The enthusiasm, precaution and orderliness, which the Caliph displayed in undertaking this important task, are unparalleled. In one of his royal decrees he ordered: "Whatever Tradition of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) you may come across must be recorded after proper scrutiny, as I fear the loss of knowledge and the death of the scholars. But beware! Never accept any saying other than that of the Holy Prophet nor record the same.''

    Damascus was soon flooded with large collections of Prophet's (peace be upon him) Traditions. The Caliph put them all in writing after further scrutiny .In this manner the different Hadees collection were brought together in one place for the first time in Islamic history. This all-inclusive collection then because a standard source of guidance and reference. The Caliph got several copies of the same prepared under his personal supervision. One copy was placed in the central mosque of each main city of the vast empire. Consequently the recorder accounts of the saying and the deeds of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) came within easy masses.

 IMAM MALIK'S DECORATED FLOWER VASE

The person next after Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz, who enjoys the reputation of systematic collection of Prophet's (peace be upon him) Traditions and their mass circulation, is Abu Abdullah Malik bin Anas (may Allah be pleased with them). His brief name is Imam Malik. He was a great scholar. Born in Medina in 93 A.H., he died in 179 A.H. at the age of 86.

    Imam Malik lectured on Hadees for 62 years. His famous book on the subject is known as Muatta, which means the decorated. This great book presents Prophet's Traditions in a tastefully decorated and carefully arranged manner. Indeed, the style and the presentation are so charming that the book really like a decorated flower vase. The Imam completed it in 140 A.H. Muatta includes 1,720 Traditions. It is the first highly organized collection of Traditions. The book is widely valued all over the world.

THE MUSNAD OF IMAM HAMBAL

    After Muatta, eminent scholars produced several other collections. Among these later publications Musnad enjoys the largest reputation. It was prepared by Imam Ahmad bin Hambal (may Allah be pleased with him). He is known as Imam Hambal. The book contains 30,000 Traditions.

    Imam Hambal was born in 164 A.H. in Baghdad, the famed capital town of Iraq. He died in the same town in 241 A.H. Imam Hambal was unusually intelligent thoroughly pious and a reputed scholar.

THE SIX SOUND BOOKS

    After the publication of Muatta and Musnad a number of other Hadees collections also appeared at different times. The six such collections, which gained unusual fame, are known as Sahih Sitta, which means 'the six sound books.' These collections are: -
(1) Sahih Bukhari,
(2) Sahih Muslim,
(3) Jame Tirmizi,
(4) Sunan-e-Abu Daud,
(5) Sunan-e-Nasaaee, and
(6) Sunan-e-Ibn-e-Majah.

  1. Sahih Bukhari: The compiler of this famous collection is the eminent scholar, Imam Muhammad bin Ismaeel bin Ibrahim bin Muizz. He is popularly known as Imam Bukhari. He was born in 194 A.H. in Bukhari, the famed city of Iran. He died in 256 A.H. at the age of 62.

Sahih Bukhari is also known as Bukhari. Imam Bukhari worked over the book for 16 years continuously. He finally selected 7,275 Traditions for inclusion in is collection. Sahih Bukhari has always been considered as the trust-worthiest book on Hadees.

    (2) Sahih Muslim: Next to Sahih Bukhari the authoritative book on Hadees is Sahih Muslim. Its short title is Muslim. Its compiler is Imam Muslim bin Hajjal Al-Qushairi Al-Neishapuri. He is also known as Imam Muslim. He was born round about 204 A.H. in Neishapuri, a famous town in Iran. He died in 261 A.H. His collection was finalized after a prolonged research of 15 years. It includes 12,000 Traditions.

    Bukhari and Muslim, combined together, are referred to as 'Sahihain', which means 'two reliable books'. Similarly, Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim are referred together as 'Shaikhain', meaning two great religious scholars. A Tradition, which is common in Bukhari and Muslim, is termed as 'Muttafaqun Alaih'. It means a Hadees which is agreed upon' by Imam Bukhari as well as Imam Muslim. Such as agreed upon Tradition is considered to be most trustworthy.

(3) Jame Tirmizi: The third famed Hadees book in the Sahih Sitta series is the Jame Tirmizi. Its compiler is Imam Abu Isa Muhammad bin Isa, also known as Imam Tirmizi. He was well- known disciple of Imam Bukhari. He was born in 209 A.H in Tirmizi, a famous town in Iran. He died in the same town in 279 A.H Jame Tirmizi contains 2,028 Traditions. Muslim scholars have great regard for this valuable source of a great a great wisdom.

(4) Sunan-e- Abu Daud: The fourth book in this famous series is known as Sunan-e-Daud. The name of the compiler is Abu Daud Sulaiman bin Abbas. He is also known as Imam Abu Daud. He was born in 202 A.H. in Sajistan, a place near Qandhar in Afghanistan. He died in 275 A.H. at the age of 73. Sunan Abu Daud consists of 4,800 Traditions.

(5) Sunan-e-Nasaaee: This is the fifth famous collection in the same series. Imam Abu Abdur Rahman Ahmad bin Shuaib Nasaaee is its compiler. His short name is Imam Nasaaee. He was born in 215 A.H. in Niasaaee, a famed town of Iran. He died in 303 A.H. His book contains 5,71 Traditions.

(6) Sunan-e-Ibn Majah: The last among the six sound books is the Sunan-e-Ibn Majah. Imam Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Yazeed Ibn-e-Majah compiled it. He is also known as Imam Ibn Majah. He was born in 209 A.H. in Qazveen, a town in Iran. He died in 273 A.H., after attaining the age of 64. His compilation comprises 4,000 Traditions.

OTHER FAMOUS HADEES COMPILATIONS

In addition to these famed Hadees collections a large number of other compilations have also been published from time to time. Of these the three widely known ones, several Traditions out of which have been cited in the present book, are as follows:
    (1) Sunan-e-Darimi,
    (2) Sunan-e-Baihaqi,
    (3) Miskat-ul-Masabih.

    (1) Sunan-e-Darimi: Its compiler is Imam Abu Muhammad Abdullah bin Abdur Rehman Al-Darimi. He is also known as Imam Darimi. He was born in 181 A.H. in Samarqand, the famed town of Russia. He died in 225 A.H. He enjoys great reputation for his sound character and vast knowledge. His collection contains 3,550 Traditions.

    (2) Sunan-e-Baihaqi: This collection was compiled by Imam Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Al-Hussain Al-Baihaqi. He was born in 384 A.H. in Baihaq, a village near Neishapuri in Iran. He died in 458 A.H. Imam Baihaqi was too fond of producing sound religious literature. He is author of about one thousand standard books and scholarly papers.

    (3) Mishkat-ul-Masabih: Its compiler is Imam Walli-ud-Din Abu Abdullah bin Abdullah Al-Khateeb At-Tabrizi, also known as Imam Tirmizi. He ranks as one of the most eminent Hadees scholars of the eighth century A.H. Khateeb Tirmizi was born in 421 A.H. in Tabriz, the well-known town of Iran. The date of his death is 502 A.H.

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